This highly finicky plant was found in very soft blackwater rivers and rivulets close to the mouth of the Amazon river. It was introduced to aquaristics under the name Tonina sp. ‘Belém’ by the Japanese company Rayon Vert. The name affix relates to the Brazilian city of Belém near which the plant was discovered.
Cavan Allen (of aquaticplantcentral.com) found out that this plant is not a Tonina but belongs to the genus Syngonanthus. Christel Kasselmann (2010) compared plant samples with herbar material from the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem and found out that this plant is very problably Syngonanthus macrocaulon. Several authors consider this name a synonym of Syngonanthus anomalus.
Whereas Tonina fluviatilis, so far the only species in the genus Tonina, develops short-stalked flowers in the leaf axils along the stem, Syngonanthus species have long-stalked head-shaped flowers that appear in groups on the shoot tip, like the species in the genus Eriocaulon.
Syngonanthus macrocaulon is one of the most dificult plants to keep in an aquarium. It needs highly intensive light (around 1 watt per litre), the addition of CO2 and soft water (GH and KH not over 5). Like Tonina fluviatilis and Syngonanthus sp. ‘Manaus’, this plant also needs a slightly acidic substrate. Sufficient iron in the water is also very important to maintain its bright green colour.
It is said to live in symbiosis with mycorrhiza fungi, and thus it is recommended to add some material containing these fungi to the substrate near the plant to bring it to its full beauty. However, no concrete information is available on which fungi species are needed and if mycorrhiza fungi have indeed been found in the root system of Syngonanthus macrocaulon.
Synonyms : Tonina sp. ‘Belem’ (erroneous)
Family : Eriocaulaceae|
Genus : Syngonanthus
Usage : Background, Midground
Hardiness : Difficult
Light Needs : High
CO2 Demand : High
Plant Structure : Stem
Size Stem width : 5-6cm (2-2.5in)
Growth Rate : Medium
Propagation : stem cuttings
Portion : Selling in stem Submerged Form ( ~ 5cm Length )
[ Shrimp Safe !! ]
1) Photo is for illustration purpose only.
2) All livestock / liveplant will send out on Monday and Wednesday for Peninsular Malaysia by Lineclear.
3) We do not cover DEATH ON ARRIVAL (DOA).
4) Do not send to Sabah/ Sawarak/ Labuan/ Singapore.